“Humor is the almost-faithful, the work of the one who needs to imagine.”
–Jeremy Dauber, Jewish Comedy: A Severe Historical past
As Rachel Bloom, comedian and erstwhile star of Loopy Ex-Girlfriend, danced onto stage in her light-up sneakers, I took a chew of licorice, a swig of root beer, and a deep breath. I’ve been a fan of Bloom’s for some time now; I even wrote an article on how the humor of Loopy Ex-Girlfriend pertains to the Jewishness of the Gospel of Mark. It was an odd pairing, I do know, however as a Jewish scholar of biblical research and up to date vital principle (e.g., humor principle), it was in my wheelhouse.
The present I attended, titled “Rachel Bloom is Rusty,” was Bloom’s first efficiency because the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic. In fact, hardly something in regards to the pandemic has been humorous. And actually, Bloom took the pandemic severely by requiring viewers members to point out proof of vaccination, a damaging Covid-19 take a look at, and to put on face coverings except consuming snacks bought by the venue. The efficiency itself checked out dying and dying with a characteristically Jewish gallows humor, as Bloom instructed tales of non-public ache whereas additionally displaying us house movies of herself as a toddler studying about human struggling.
Akin to Loopy Ex-Girlfriend, “Rachel Bloom is Rusty” touched on what journalist Susan Dominus has referred to as “uncomfortable truths.” Whereas storytelling is universally central to standup, the autobiographical experiences Bloom shared have been nothing in need of harrowing. Having delivered her first youngster at the beginning of the pandemic—a child who fought for her well being within the NICU whereas Bloom’s pal, fellow comedy actor Adam Schlesinger, was dying of Covid—Bloom let her viewers know that she was struggling to seek out enjoyable amidst the horror. Slightly than draw back from her ache, she channeled it, layering fears of illness and dying upon each disrupting joke. This was not a set of meaningless slapstick. As an alternative, just like the genre-bending specials of Tig Notaro and Hannah Gadsby—and, actually, like most humor that engages the complexities of being human—this was actual. And it was uncooked.
Trying again, I recall three autobiographical factors that engaged this kind of comedian sensibility: Bloom’s childhood recollections of the January 17, 1994 Northridge earthquake, Bloom’s Jewish atheism, and Bloom’s want to “imagine” regardless of her atheism.
Let me start with the earthquake. For Bloom, the Northridge earthquake’s ruins become a neighborhood vacationer attraction. As a toddler, her dad and mom took her from web site to web site (learn: collapsed buildings) as they defined in no comfortable phrases how the buildings fell and the way the individuals inside them died. Bloom shared house films of the ordeal—clips of the younger actor digesting her proximity to dying and, with it, her personal mortality. All through the screenings, Bloom commented on the absurdity of all of it, together with the weird stylings of her life-and-death classes, in addition to the toll these classes took on her. There wasn’t a transparent punch line to this—a lot of Bloom’s present was experimental—however the mixture of horror and humor caught with me.
Bloom’s Northridge reflections flowed simply into her commentary on theology—or, extra rightly, her lack of a theology. She famous that, other than her cultural Judaism, she doesn’t determine as non secular. Her non-theistic orientation, she stated, is what finally helped her overcome her concern of ghosts. In her thoughts, as long as she didn’t imagine in a divine realm, ghosts couldn’t exist. So these specters on Disney’s Haunted Mansion ghost prepare—those that declare to “comply with you house” on the finish of the journey? Not actual. The ghosts lingering between the fallen particles at Northridge? Additionally not actual.
For Bloom, although, a scarcity of religion didn’t assure a scarcity of concern. Whereas ghosts might not be actual, struggling and dying and the fear of what occurs after this life—or, in her thoughts, what doesn’t occur—nonetheless is. And the way good it could be, she mirrored, to imagine in one thing past the ache.
It was at this level that Bloom’s atheistic Judaism and hope for a perception in one thing extra began to intertwine, no less than for a fellow non-theistic Jew like me. Like Bloom, I typically replicate upon my fears of dying in relation to previous experiences, together with the occasions wherein I used to be invited to transform to Christianity. Trying again, it’s an odd expertise to have 16-year-old friends and their dad and mom hand you Christ-centered books with customized notes of encouragement, but it surely was regular to me. I had an approachable character and was one of many solely Jews in my faculty. These elements alone made me prime proselytizing bait.
I wasn’t the one bait, nevertheless. Jesus, too, was additionally being dangled as prime meat—a hearty specimen to chew and swallow as an ever-present sacrificial lamb for my salvation. However regardless of wanting to imagine, I, like Bloom, may by no means take the bait. Like Bloom, I adopted my very own inside logic, and a Christ-following theology simply didn’t add up. And this, for me, actually sucked.
Enable me to clarify:
It’s common for contemporary Jews, particularly for these not raised in Chasidic or Haredi households, to think about conceptions of heaven, hell, and the afterlife antithetical to Jewish considering. As an alternative, up to date Judaism’s focus is on the right here and now—the Olam HaZeh—and the methods we will interact in tikkun olam (repairing the world). In different phrases, it’s not that conceptions of the afterlife are missing; it’s that concepts of the afterlife are a non-starter. We don’t even go there. Non secular conversations of dying and dying—those who ponder divinity or the cosmic realm in relation to dying—are fully irrelevant.
Once more, as a Jew myself, I get it. Phrases similar to “heaven,” “hell,” and “afterlife” have been by no means ones I heard at Hebrew Faculty or the various Shabbat providers I spent at shul. However as a scholar of Christian origins and its relations to Jews in antiquity, I discover this silence intriguing. The early Jesus motion, in any case, was a Jewish one, and was deeply embedded in contemplations of messianism. To imagine in Jesus because the Christos meant to imagine in Jesus because the Moshiach—the Messiah—the one to inaugurate the messianic age (a.okay.a. the world to return, a.okay.a. the Olam HaBa). Theologies of an afterlife have been central to this Jewish motion. Alongside these concepts have been apocalyptic eschatologies, that’s, concepts in regards to the world being made up of struggling, and the way ultimately of days such struggling will probably be eradicated. These theologies have been typically responses to repeated Jewish hardships; life in antiquity, maybe particularly for Jews, was not straightforward. To imagine in one thing past this life introduced hope to those that skilled struggling.
The place did these Jewish ideas go, you would possibly ask? By the fourth century of the Frequent Period, the Christ-following motion started to develop extra widespread as one thing not Jewish—that’s, as one thing not reliant upon Jewish ethnic participation (e.g., Sabbath observance, kosher dietary practices, male circumcision, and many others.). Some theological connections remained, nevertheless. For instance, whereas Gentile Christ-followers stored their foreskins, additionally they stored with them Jewish concepts about resurrection and the messianic age. It’s not essentially that Rabbinic Judaism stopped partaking in such issues, however that Rabbinic Jews, no less than in follow, and as time pressed on, left behind discussions of resurrection and the top occasions. The rationale for that is unclear, though many have hypothesized that Rabbinic Jews needed to ascertain a clearer boundary between the Christ-followers and themselves. The Christ-following motion developed right into a Gentile Christianity with an afterlife focus, and Judaism developed right into a non-Jesus-focused custom sans emphasis on the afterlife.
And so, I’ve to ask:
Did Rachel Bloom not simply spend her total set speaking about dying and dying paired with the hope for one thing higher? Did she not carry all through her comedic efficiency an apocalyptic mindset—an understanding that struggling is upon us all? What if Jewish conversations of dying and dying haven’t truly gone away? What if, as a substitute of being examined from the synagogue bima, they’re now on a distinct type of stage?
Rachel Bloom, in any case, isn’t the one Jewish comedian to flirt with eschatology or apocalyptic considering. Alongside self-deprecation, Jewish comedy tends to focus on Jewish anxieties about human struggling. It’s certainly a comedic trope of Jewish humorists to fret not solely about ache, however about what occurs to us subsequent.
“I really feel so short-changed,” fellow Jewish comic Jenny Slate jests in her current Netflix Special. Whereas Christians appear to be in such good moods, not worrying, for instance, about getting robbed on their approach to midnight mass or Santa catching on fireplace taking place the chimney, Jews are singing about collective grief and genocide with out eschatological hope. Even the happiest of Chanukah songs is a few potato pancake getting fried in an oven!
Sarah Silverman is equally well-known for sharing the stage with the gallows. In certainly one of her units, she too focuses on what occurs within the oven, though this time it’s not in regards to the oil. She jests that, no less than in accordance with some variations of Christianity, all Hitler needed to do was say 10 “Heil Marys” for what he did within the Holocaust, and he’d be good to go. Whereas the punch of Silverman’s joke rests within the wordplay, she remains to be toying with otherworldliness. Silverman’s humor, although deeply political, is equally mystical, a lot in order that she regularly invitations a resurrected Jesus to assist unfold the Good Information of her comedian feats. And, on the finish of the day, who is aware of? Possibly add just a few extra “Heil Marys” and Hitler will help run heaven’s public talking program.
A 2020 Op-ed by a Jewish Mark Jacobs echoes these sentiments. In response to his Covid-19 anxieties, he writes that “[a] couple of [his] Christian buddies, each Baptist pastors, instruct[ed] [him] that Isaiah affords a succinct information for coping with concern: ‘Don’t be afraid, for I’m with you all the time.’” As a extra secular tribe member, counting on cozy biblical interpretation wasn’t sufficient. As an alternative, it was the apocalyptic, uncomfortable truths of Jewish comedy that spoke to him. It was the “loopy and outrageous commentary about human life,” the “irreverent, stunning and infrequently hysterical” jabs about ache and struggling that helped him cope.
Though Jacobs doesn’t clarify how Jewish comedy helped him, I’ve a hunch. Comedy, by way of hyperbole and absurdity, has the facility to create various realities—ones that really feel extra bearable, even when it’s the tragic that’s being mentioned. It additionally leaves room for us to debate concepts which are typically neglected in on a regular basis life. For Jews, this contains ideas on human struggling, which after all is mentioned in shul, however additionally contains anxieties about dying, dying, and “what occurs subsequent” (even when—particularly if?—what’s subsequent is unconscious nothingness).
Whereas Jewish humor might not have the solutions, it does reveal that questions of dying and dying and “what occurs subsequent” are nonetheless a part of the Jewish psyche. In spite of everything, simply because most rabbis don’t lead their congregants in deep conversations about dying or post-death, this doesn’t imply that Jews carry with them an “all the things is nice; all the things is ok” sentiment. The stereotype, in actual fact, could be very a lot the other.
So, getting again to Bloom (and maybe it’s excessive time we did): as I completed my root beer and chewed my final Purple Vine, and as my colleague snuck away to seize her locally-sourced greens from the theater’s coat closet (it’s an extended story), I stored considering that Jewish contemplations of dying and dying—contemplations that transcend these of the right here and now—haven’t truly gone away. They’ve simply been channeled by way of a distinct medium: the Jewish comedian. Via their wit and thru our laughter, Jewish comics are serving to us—the am-Israel—wrestle just a bit much less with the world’s uncomfortable truths.
Sarah Emanuel is Assistant Professor of New Testomony Research at Loyola Marymount College in Los Angeles, CA. She resides on the coast together with her fiancée, Zoë, and their stereotypically lesbian farm of 4 canines and two cats.