What Greek fantasy tells us about fashionable witchcraft
(The Dialog) — Residing on the North Shore in Boston within the fall brings the beautiful turning of the leaves and pumpkin patches. It is usually a time for folks to head to close by Salem, Massachusetts, house of the 17th century infamous witch trials, and go to its popular museum.
Regardless of a troubled historical past, there are folks immediately who think about themselves witches. Usually, fashionable witches share their lore, craft and stories on TikTok and different social media platforms.
As a scholar who works on myth and poetry from historic Greece – and as a local of New England – I’ve lengthy been fascinated by the cultural conversations about witches. Witch trials within the Americas and Europe had been partially about enforcing power structures and persecuting the weak. From historic Greece by means of Puritan New England, witches functioned as straightforward targets for cultural anxieties about gender, energy and mortality.
Historic witches: gender and energy
Whereas fashionable witchcraft is inclusive of many various genders and identities, witches in historic fantasy and literature had been nearly solely ladies. Their tales had been partially about navigating gender roles and energy in a patriarchal system.
Concern about ladies’s energy was an important a part of historic anxiousness about witchcraft. This concern, furthermore, relied on conventional expectations concerning the talents innate to an individual’s gender. As early because the creation narrative in Hesiod’s “Theogony” – a poem hailing from a poetic custom between the eighth and fifth centuries B.C. – male gods like Cronus and Zeus had been depicted with bodily energy, whereas female figures were endowed with intelligence. Particularly, ladies knew concerning the mysteries of childbirth and how you can increase youngsters.
Within the primary framework of Greek fantasy, then, males had been robust and girls used intelligence and methods to deal with their violence. This gendered distinction in traits mixed with historic Greek views of our bodies and getting older. Whereas ladies had been seen to maneuver by means of phases of life based mostly on biology – childhood, adolescence through menstruation, childbearing and previous age – the getting older of males was related to their relationship to ladies, notably in getting married and having youngsters.
Each Greek and Latin have a single phrase for man and husband – “aner” in Greek and “vir” in Latin. Socially and ritually, males had been primarily seen as adolescents till they grew to become husbands and fathers.
Feminine management over copy was symbolized as a form of ability to control life and death. In historic Greece, ladies had been anticipated to bear all tasks throughout early little one rearing. Additionally they had been those to solely tackle particular roles in mourning the useless. Suspicion, anxiousness and concern about mortality had been then placed on to ladies generally.
Highly effective ladies
This was true particularly for ladies who didn’t match into typical gendered roles just like the virtuous bride, the great mom or the useful previous maid.
Whereas historic Greek doesn’t have a phrase that straight interprets as “witch,” it does have “pharmakis” (somebody who provides out medication or medication), “aoidos” (singer, enchantress) and “graus” or “graia” (previous girl). Of those names, graus might be closest to later European stereotypes: the mysterious previous girl who shouldn’t be a part of a conventional household construction.
Very similar to immediately, foreignness invited suspicion within the historic world as effectively. A number of of the characters who could qualify as legendary witches had been ladies from distant lands. Medea, well-known for killing her youngsters when her husband, Jason, proposes marrying another person in Euripides’ play, was a girl from the east, a foreigner who didn’t adhere to the expectations for a lady’s conduct in Greece.
She began her narrative as a princess who used concoctions and spells to assist Jason. Her powers elevated male virility and life.
Medea allegedly realized her magical craft from her aunt, Circe, who reveals up in Homer’s “Odyssey.” She lived alone on an island, luring males to her cabin with seductive foods and drinks to show them into animals. Odysseus defeated her with an antidote offered by the god Hermes. As soon as her magic failed, Circe believed she had no selection however to undergo Odysseus.
Witches over time
Elsewhere within the “Odyssey” there are comparable themes: the Sirens who sing to Odysseus are enchantresses who attempt to take management of the hero. Earlier within the epic, the viewers witnesses Helen, whose departure with the Trojan prince Paris was the reason for the Trojan Conflict, add an Egyptian drug called nepenthe to the wine she provides to her husband, Menelaos, and Odysseus’ son, Telemachus. This wine was so robust, it made folks overlook concerning the ache of shedding even a liked one.
In every of those circumstances, ladies who apply magic threaten to exert management over males with instruments that can be a part of a pleasurable life: songs, intercourse and households. Different myths of monstrous ladies reinforce how misogynistic stereotypes animate these beliefs. The ancient figure Lamia, for instance, was a as soon as lovely girl who stole and killed infants as a result of her youngsters had died.
Empousa was a vampiric creature who ate up the intercourse and blood of younger males. Even Medusa, well-known because the snake-haired Gorgon who turned males to stone, was reported in some sources to have truly been a girl so lovely that Perseus reduce her head off to show it off to his friends.
These examples are from fantasy. There have been many residing traditions of girls’s therapeutic and tune cultures which were misplaced over time. Many educational authors have traced the trendy practices of witchcraft to ancient cults and the survival of pagan traditions outdoors of mainstream Christianity. Latest studies of ancient magical practices present how widespread and different they had been.
Whereas historic ladies had been seemingly topic to suspicion and slander for witchcraft, there isn’t a proof that they confronted the form of widespread persecution of witches that swept Europe and the Americas a couple of centuries in the past. The later twentieth century, nonetheless, noticed renewed curiosity in witchcraft, usually in live performance with movements empowering women.
Fashionable witches are crossing worldwide borders and studying from one another with out leaving their houses by creating communities on social media, like TikTok. If concern about ladies’s energy led to paranoia prior to now, exploring and embracing witchcraft has turn into a part of reclaiming ladies’s histories.
(Joel Christensen is a professor of classical research at Brandeis College. The views expressed on this commentary don’t essentially mirror these of Faith Information Service.)