The language of prayer and the language of poetry share robust similarities. Prayer, like poetry, permits for, and even invitations, the interaction between reality and sweetness. A brand new e book explores this connection between rational thought and aesthetic expression. Romantic Prayer: Reinventing the Poetics of Devotion, 1773–1832 (Oxford College Press, 2021), by Christopher Stokes, senior lecturer in Romantic literature with the College of Exeter, is a scholarly examination of a number of key poets of the British Romantic interval, from pre-Romantic William Cowper to second-generation Romantics Percy Shelley and Lord Byron and a spread of poets in between.
The poets examined on this e book mirror shifts in types of spiritual devotion. Stokes argues that the theology of prayer mirrored on this age and its poets parallels the rising significance of particular person practices in spiritual life, when devotion grew to become as a lot about doing as believing. Poetry, likewise, was more and more changing into a private observe, not merely an goal artwork.
Dwelling in a time of ongoing and culminating secularization, these poets illustrate the methods Christianity helped delivery secularity, as debates concerning the modes of Christianity advanced into debates about Christianity itself. Even so, as Stokes reveals, poetry generally is a option to protect and observe spiritual religion amid rising skepticism.
You name prayer “an organ of religion” due to the best way it “imprints” an understanding of God within the one who prays. Poetry, too, is a language that types or imprints itself on us. The inspiration of your evaluation is that the language of prayer and the language of poetry are deeply related. How are they related?
There’s definitely a deep historic connection between poetry and prayer. As I be aware within the e book, the very earliest surviving poem in English, Caedmon’s “Hymn,” is a type of prayer. And throughout the centuries, poetry has been energized by its relationship with personal prayers, with hymnody, with liturgies, and with nice scriptural texts just like the Psalms or the Track of Songs. There are specific eras—I’m considering of the seventeenth century and the Victorian interval, as an example—when devotional poetry actually is nearly as good as the rest being written in English literature, and also you see poetry drawing this super magnificence and complexity from the good spiritual and theological shifts of its instances.
So, it’s unattainable to consider the event of English verse—and literature by no means sheds its histories—with out desirous about prayer as nicely. The evangelical custom usually slighted set or memorized prayers and noticed prayer as a way more visceral cry from the center. Poetry additionally took inspiration from that notion.
Extra abstractly, there’s additionally one thing interlinking the expertise of prayer and the expertise of lyric poetry (poetry spoken by an “I”), which has at all times captured the creativeness of writers. Maybe it has to do with the intimacy of voice, or the overtones of confession, or the concept of talking on this strikingly uncommon means (that prayer and poetry share) whereby there isn’t essentially an addressee current within the standard means however there’s nonetheless a elementary sense that this language might be heard. I’ve at all times been fascinated by these hyperlinks.
The Romantic poets have been, in some ways, reacting to seismic shifts within the 18th century, shifts led to by the Enlightenment, by the factions inside and out of doors the established church, and by the elevated subjectivity that each enacted and mirrored these adjustments. You name this “a time by which prayer was a language below stress.” What do you imply by this?
Perhaps prayer is at all times a language below stress! The Enlightenment will get mischaracterized, I believe, as a relentless critique of faith. Really, the novel atheist or anti-Christian polemic we affiliate with, say, French thinkers, was a reasonably excessive wing of a wider sensibility throughout Europe, and most components of it had no actual want to exist with Christianity in any respect.
Nonetheless, it’s true that many Christian thinkers within the period have been obsessed concerning the reasonableness of faith as a perception system—and prayer match fairly awkwardly into that rationalizing venture. For instance, the concept that God would intervene supernaturally within the rigorously constructed pure universe he had elegantly and intelligently created simply because somebody prays—nicely, that simply didn’t sit nicely.
Because the century went on, I’d summarize two reverse reactions to this “reasonableness.” On the one hand, some Christians needed to rationalize additional, and their variations of prayer grew to become nearer to contemplation or meditation. On the opposite, the Methodists and the evangelicals supplied one thing far more unapologetically religious and otherworldly, addressing a devotional want however scary lots of suspicion and even mockery from the mainstream. So, it’s a captivating time when a number of concepts of prayer are circulating.
You describe the “secular” as “an area opened up between theism and atheism.” Are you able to elaborate on this concept?
It’s a means of historical past in a extra advanced means. It appears broadly clear that over just a few hundred years within the West, we moved from a state of affairs the place Christianity was this universally shared backdrop to a gift second the place this isn’t the case. Historically, the secularization speculation has described this variation as a one-way road whereby faith inexorably offers an increasing number of floor to cause, humanism, science, or no matter. It’s a story of inevitable binary battle between faith and modernity. The issue is that we typically discover that black-and-white methods of historical past almost at all times fail the fantastic element. Issues comparable to science weren’t at all times the opposites of faith, and faith continued to generate profound methods of inhabiting the world throughout the 18th and nineteenth centuries and past.
I’m making an attempt to notice that what the secular includes isn’t atheism triumphing over theism and therefore bringing in “the fashionable world” as an atheist world, however somewhat a spread of theists, a spread of skeptics, and a spread of agnostics all growing their concepts in a tradition which now not has that frequent background of shared Christianity. Mainly, it’s simply an acknowledgment that Christianity (or any faith) doesn’t cease having mental vibrancy simply because different types of perception or nonbelief immediately share its cultural area; there are fashionable expressions of the Christian custom. Put that means, it’s important to query why students ever thought that wasn’t the case!
Inside the Evangelical Revival, prayer turns into not simply an act of affordable devotion or responsibility however, as you write, “a battle, a wrestling, a matter of life or dying.” You additional clarify that “Evangelical prayer includes a transformation and transposition of self,” and that it’s because evangelicalism’s sense of self includes “an expertise of alterity and decentering.” How does prayer itself contribute to this sort of “intensified religious existence”?
I believe all traditions acknowledged totally different types and experiences of prayer, however additionally they privileged sure sorts as extra prototypical. For the 18th-century mainstream, prayer tended to be one thing that composed and oriented the self. It’s all prayer as an motion which locations your ideas and emotions right into a construction that referred to God. For the evangelical custom, prayer was not a lot a “doing” as a state of “being”—and importantly, a state of new being.
So, prayer was a few issues to the 18th-century evangelical. It was an invite for a divine inflow to make the self anew. It was additionally the language of genuine life breaking by from the depths of the soul, “an embryo of God, a spark of fireplace divine,” as Anna Letitia Barbauld places it. And it’s additionally the document of the battle of the sinner present process that transformation. It’s all far more dramatic than the mainstream account, as a result of it’s about change in your complete existence.
In your chapter on the poetry of the evangelical William Cowper (most well-known for his collaboration with John Newton on the Olney Hymns), you deal with the connection between the observe of prayer throughout the Evangelical Revival and “radical interiority,” or a way of an genuine self. And also you describe the decline of Cowper’s lifelong fragile psychological well being as, partly, “the failing of prayer.” Are you able to clarify this connection? Do any of Cowper’s hottest hymns illustrate this connection?
William Cowper’s Calvinism has at all times been seen as an issue. The good emotional energy of Wesley and the Methodists got here from the controversial doctrines of sanctification, however what if elegant confidence in salvation was changed with a potent assurance of your failure to be saved? Prayer is available in as a result of a prayerful state was seen as one of many probably indicators of election, and to find prayer a tormenting battle, Cowper feared he was encountering his personal religious nullity. But the recommendation given to an evangelical struggling to hope was, in impact, to hope extra—to hope for the ability to hope. This grew to become one thing of a tragic circle for Cowper.
It’s in all probability true, and maybe comprehensible, that the preferred of Cowper’s hymns take extra optimistic positions, however motifs of estrangement and inadequacy are nonetheless very a lot current: the melancholic nostalgia of “O for a better stroll with God,” or the “poor lisping / stamm’ring tongue” envisaged within the grave in “There’s a fountain stuffed with blood.” The round logic can also be obvious within the rhetoric of affection in “Hark, my soul, it’s the Lord,” a poem whose fantastically tender photos of care anticipate a few of the quieter recesses of prayer in Cowper’s later lengthy poem The Process.
For Anna Letitia Barbauld, a Dissenter whom you establish as “in all probability probably the most theologically literate author” in your research, prayer is much less inside, extra social and bodily (involving the act of kneeling, an act achieved in a bodily and sometimes communal area). How does that totally different understanding of prayer play out in her theology, observe, and poetry?
Barbauld is a captivating determine, not least as a result of she illustrates how poetry cannot solely specific theology however contest it. This wing of 18th-century Dissent was more and more embracing a really perfect of prayer as solitary reflection: minimizing petition, suspicious of collective prayer, usually privileging the wordless, and in some variations cautious about even addressing God. This trajectory simply doesn’t make sense for Barbauld, and in her spiritual poetry she repeatedly evokes scenes of solo philosophical contemplation solely to interrupt them with one thing far more intimate and direct. As her profession progresses, I believe she finds probably the most genuine spiritual passions are discovered not in a single thoughts reflecting on the infinite, however these generated by shared experiences inside household or chapel. Elegantly, she writes in 1792: “We neither snicker alone, nor weep alone, why then ought to we pray alone?”
One of the crucial lovely and memorable moments of prayer in all of Romantic poetry is the second in Samuel T. Coleridge’s haunting Rime of the Historical Mariner when a curse positioned on the seafarer after wantonly killing an albatross is damaged when he bursts forth in spontaneous prayer in response to seeing the fantastic thing about sea creatures at play upon the water. What does this second within the poem illuminate concerning the deep connections between prayer, poetry, magnificence, and the bounds and the ability of language?
That is maybe probably the most well-known prayer in Romantic poetry. The very first thing I’d say is that in no less than one sense I can’t inform you what this second means. What Coleridge evokes is one thing uncanny and wondrous: It’s a story pivot round which the entire mysterious poem turns, however it’s unusually depthless. After all, critics have tried to interpret it: The mariner is having an ecological epiphany or dealing with as much as the guilt of the slave commerce or philosophically transformed to the pantheistic doctrine of the “one life.” However, in impact, the purpose is its uninterpretability. It simply falls, like grace.
As a younger philosophical radical, Coleridge had been a full-blown rationalist Unitarian, however by the late 1790s he was starting to really feel the reality (his personal phrases) of spiritual doctrines like authentic sin and the Trinity, though he couldn’t clarify them and didn’t have a theology to account for his or her penalties. These poems tried to fill the hole between what he might clarify and what he was starting to really feel. In his late profession, he would go on to aim a “philosophy of prayer,” which tried to clarify how prayer could possibly be each completely legitimate however lie partly past the types of human cause. The truth that some extraordinary traces in a poem of the 1790s might do what his theological labors of the 1820s couldn’t tells you numerous, I believe, concerning the relation between prayer, poetry, theology, and language.