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Problematizing Reality and Fiction in International Politics

In standard knowledge, fiction and non-fiction are sometimes seen as several types of genres on completely different terrains of data. Non-fiction is the realm of details whereas fiction is the realm of creativeness or non-facts. Bertrand Russell, asserts that “To learn how nature works, we should neglect our personal hopes and fears and tastes, and be guided solely by cautious investigation of details.”[1] Worldwide Relations (IR) as a part of non-fiction is a research of details, empirical proof and knowledge. Accordingly, knowledge can sufficiently converse for themselves. In Designing Social Inquiry, King, Keohane and Verba outline knowledge as “systematically collected parts of details about the world”.[2] It leaves little room for creativeness and creativity. Nonetheless, in actuality, reality (out-there on this planet) and fiction (in right here) aren’t completely separable, however mutually constitutive. Many abnormal individuals come to know worldwide relations in a roundabout way by the details ‘on the market’ on this planet however quite by on a regular basis fashionable tradition, together with movie and fiction. The worldwide is occasionally narrated in and thru the fictional. The latter shapes and intersubjectively constructs how we expect and picture worldwide politics.

Contemplate Star Wars. We all know (factual) “Star Wars” solely once we know (fictional) “Star Wars”. That’s, Ronald Reagan’s Strategic Protection Initiative (SDI) program (1983) shouldn’t be significant with out the Star Wars movie franchise, starting in 1977. Illustration is a part of actuality. By interrogating the inflexible dichotomy of reality/fiction and bringing the fictional and fashionable tradition again into the research of IR, this text argues that quite than narrowly conceived as a methodological instrument of fiction writing, Fictional Worldwide Relations is a vital theoretical exploration and intervention that rethinks the fictional as an area of creativeness and narrative in addition to an area for emancipation.

The primary a part of this text examines and situates Fictional Worldwide Relations within the transdisciplinary area of IR. The second half adumbrates the (meta)theoretical contributions of Fictional Worldwide Relations. Foregrounding in relational ontology, Fictional Worldwide Relations epistemologically exposes how fiction and movie are inextricably linked with the social and discursive development of actuality, particularly worldwide politics. In movie and fiction, the politics of identification and otherness in addition to the political illustration of pals and enemies are repetitively reproduced. Fictional Worldwide Relations grammatically constitutes the quotidian language of world politics. Taking cues from Michel Foucault and Edward Stated, Fictional Worldwide Relations has provided a strategy of contrapuntal studying and discourse evaluation. The third half then gives a contrapuntal and discursive studying of State of Terror (2021). It explores why and the way this novel critically destabilizes the highly effective troupe of reality/fiction binary, which can not maintain and has been blurred. Lastly, the article concludes with a consideration of the guarantees and potentials of Fictional Worldwide Relations. 


Within the final twenty years or so, IR has developed a extra vibrant and cutting-edged analysis on fashionable tradition and international politics. Amongst others, Roland Bleiker and William Callahan pioneeringly introduce the visible or aesthetic flip in IR, which explores how pictures form the way in which during which international politics works.[3] Bleiker places it properly:

We stay in a visible age. Photographs form worldwide occasions and our understanding of them … However we nonetheless know far too little in regards to the exact function visuality performs within the realm of politics and worldwide relations … (Visible IR gives) a complete overview of and engagement with the function of visuality in politics and worldwide relations … That’s, to check a political engagement with the visible and a visible engagement with the political.[4] 

Some students name for the autobiographical method to IR, by highlighting the significance of the self-reflexivity in analysis.[5] This method examines the shut and sophisticated interrelationships between theorizing and theorizer – henceforth, I/ IR.[6] IR constructs I and vice versa. All through the analysis practices and data manufacturing, I and IR are mutually constituted.

Within the area of geopolitics, there are these whose works transcend the normal method and look at the interrelationship between fashionable tradition and geopolitical illustration.[7] As a vital area of research, fashionable or vital geopolitics subsequently explores a way of how pictures and representations of worldwide political geographies flow into inside and past nationwide political cultures. It addresses two points: (1) the style during which political life is fused with the mass media; and (2) the completely different sort of media concerned in producing and circulating pictures of worldwide politics whether or not it’s tv, radio, movie, and/or the web. Associated, quite a lot of students corresponding to Cynthia Weber, Michael J. Shapiro, Klaus Dodds, William Callahan use movie as a vital strategies of instructing worldwide politics.[8] We would name this group a cinematic IR.

If we map these distinctive turns within the research of IR, we are able to see the intersection between these 4 units of analysis, particularly visible, autobiographical, cinematic and fictional IR. Fictional Worldwide Relations might be seen as a broad church that features the primary three turns.

The importance of the fictional is ubiquitous. Even in mainstream IR principle, the fictional is lately used as a metaphor. For example, the metaphor of zombies attacking the world is seen by Daniel Drezner as a metaphorical use for IR theoretical proof and relevance.[9] Nonetheless, Fictional Worldwide Relations distanciates and differentiates from mainstream IR within the sense that the fictional shouldn’t be merely a metaphorical instrument however an area of creativeness and critique.


Taking a cue from Sungju Park-Kang[10], I argue that Fictional Worldwide Relations is a vital theoretical exploration that takes the realm of creativeness and fashionable tradition into critical consideration. In distinction with Park-Kang, Fictional Worldwide Relations shouldn’t be restricted as a methodological instrument of fiction writing. Quite, it must be broadly conceived as a vital method/ ethos to rethinking the fictional as an area of creativeness and narrative that creates and shapes what’s the actual in international politics. Typically, the fictional is an area for modifications or emancipation, of all types.

Fictional Worldwide Relations has three (meta)theoretical contributions, as follows:

First, ontologically, it debunks the binary opposition between what’s fictional and what’s factual. It additionally questions how we see what’s actual or a actuality in world politics. The ontology of Fictional Worldwide Relations is fashionable tradition, together with fiction and movie. It research each issues and non-things like fiction, movie, pictures, cartoons, video games, and digital. The fictional performs necessary roles within the that means and practices of worldwide relations. As well as, Fictional Worldwide Relations ought to have interaction with relational ontology, that argues that relations precede the existence of issues.[11] It’s relations or relationality that represent how we see what’s actual on this planet. It’s neither the modifications on the market on this planet nor the modifications in right here (within the thoughts). However quite the modifications in between. Merely put, relational ontology articulates changing into, quite than being, at specific crossroads of time and house.

Foregrounding in relational ontology, Fictional Worldwide Relations epistemologically might help us assume deeper about ideas corresponding to reality, actuality and fact. It thereby contests and calls into query the imaginary boundary between reality and fiction.[12] First, the very fact/ fiction dichotomy is a contemporary development. Solely within the 17th Century, the boundary was fictionally constructed. That’s, science and historical past was related to being true and truthful (henceforth, factual and actual) whereas fiction was related to being false (henceforth, nonfactual).[13] Earlier than that, the time period ‘novel’ meant one thing new. It had been used as each true and fictional occasions. The excellence between reality and fiction is a historic development or a fiction in itself.

Second, even the time period reality originated from the Latin verb facere, which implies ‘to do’, ‘to create’, ‘to characterize’, and even ‘to think about’ and ‘to invent’. In different phrases, reality (actuality) and fiction (creativeness) are inextricably interrelated and mutually constituted. In different phrases, Fictional Worldwide Relations exposes how fiction and movie are inextricably linked with the social and discursive development of actuality, particularly worldwide politics. In movie and fiction, the politics of identification and otherness in addition to the political illustration of pals and enemies are repetitively reproduced. Contemplate the Soviet risk within the Chilly Battle period or the Russian/ Chinese language assertiveness as we speak. Fictional Worldwide Relations grammatically constitutes the quotidian/ on a regular basis language of world politics.

Third, taking cues from Michel Foucault and Edward Stated, Fictional Worldwide Relations has provided a strategy of contrapuntal studying and discourse evaluation with a purpose to make sense of the world particularly the shut and sophisticated contours of reality and fiction. Analyzing discourses shouldn’t be merely a research of meanings however extra importantly a research of ‘sense-making’ practices. Discourses might be broadly outlined as ensembles of social practices, representations and interpretations by which sure regimes of fact, and their concomitant identities, are produced and reproduced in a specific historic context.[14] They’re inseparably linked to social practices the place meanings are given to topics, objects and states’ behaviors, corresponding to diplomacy.

On this sense, the poststructural method of discourse evaluation is completely different from the constructivist method of concepts, identification and norms.[15] First, discourse shouldn’t be purely an concept. Quite, it contains each concepts and materiality. In different phrases, discourse is at all times already a discursive observe par excellence. Second, identification shouldn’t be an a priori, inherently pre-given and goal entity, impartial from social context. Quite, it’s socio-politically relational within the sense that it’s constructed by discursive practices in representing overseas coverage. Identification must be understood by way of identification or subjectivation that produced and reproduced subjectivity or topic positions in temporal and spatial contexts. Third, a norm shouldn’t be a typical or rule of acceptable behaviors. Quite, a norm is a normalizing course of. It defines what counts as ‘regular’ and ‘irregular’, ‘thinkable and ‘unthinkable’, in social practices together with overseas coverage practices.

Discourse evaluation might be complemented with Edward Stated’s contrapuntal studying. In his oft-cited e-book, Tradition and Imperialism (1993), Stated proposed a brand new manner of studying literary texts: contrapuntal studying.[16] It includes ‘pondering by and deciphering collectively’ narratives from completely different elements of the world in direction of recovering ‘intertwined and overlapping histories’ of humankind.[17] As a vital methodology, contrapuntal studying requires not solely studying the textual content by way of what it consists of, however by way of what has been excluded from it by going past the constraints of narration throughout the terrain of mainstream IR and imperialism. The texts have to be located in mild of and inside a historic context and structural dependency. In response to Stated, this context implements the dogmatic facet of imperialism, “the observe, the speculation, and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan middle ruling a distant territory.”[18]

Within the first complete biography of Edward Stated, Timothy Brennan aptly summarizes that for Stated, “the fact ‘on the market’ is inaccessible with out shared conceptions communicated by phrases. All actuality for us, insofar as we’re human and never gods, is essentially mediated by language, despite the fact that that actuality could also be bodily impartial of our ideas”. “Actuality”, continues Brennan, “acquires its sense and form solely by the use of the ideas we type of it, and this acquires its social that means solely in language. On this sense … ideas aren’t secondary to actuality however constitutive of it”.[19]

Due to this fact, Fictional Worldwide Relations can learn fiction and movie by a contrapuntal perspective, by deconstructing and demystifying the discursive underpinnings of the texts in addition to debunking the imperialist/ neo-imperialist troupe of world politics. By doing so, it may render seen the choice and marginalized voices.


“State of Terror” (2021) is co-authored by former US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and crime novelist Louise Penny.[20] This part explores why and the way this novel shouldn’t be merely and purely the results of the fictional. However quite, exhibits how the novel critically destabilizes the highly effective troupe of reality/fiction dichotomy (Secretary of State Clinton/ fictional Madam Secretary), which can not maintain and has been blurred. This studying exposes many key themes in American energy and worldwide relations, as follows (all emphases are mine):

On former US president:

“Former President Eric Dunn, that’s who. Identified to even, maybe particularly, his closest associates as Eric the Dumb. However this went past dumb into deranged” (115).

On the deep state and the state of overseas coverage:

Secretary of State Ellen Adams: “I don’t have time to waste, so listed below are the bullet factors. The previous administration screwed up every little thing it touched. It poisoned the nicely, poisoned {our relationships}. We’re the chief of the free world in identify solely. That efficient intelligence community you’re so happy with now not exists. Our allies mistrust us. Those that’d do us hurt are circling. And we let it occur. We allow them to in. Russia. The Chinese language. That madman in North Korea. And right here, within the administration, in positions of affect? And even the lower-level staff? Can we actually belief that they’re doing job?” (p 80).
“Deep State,” mentioned the Director of Nationwide Intelligence.
Ellen Adams: It’s not depth we have to fear about, it’s width. It’s in all places. 4 years of hiring, of selling, of rewarding individuals who’d say and do something to prop up a deranged President has left us weak (p 80).
In different phrases, there was no such factor because the Deep State. There was nothing “deep” about it. Nothing hidden. Profession staff and political appointees wandered the halls and sat in conferences and shared loos and tables within the cafeterias (p 51).

On America’s international management:

“A strong message was being despatched to pals and foes alike. Of continuity, of power, of resolve and objective. That the harm carried out by the previous administration can be repaired. That America was again” (p 14).

On the alliance system:

Because the Secretary of State, Ellen Adams “was able to rebuild bridges to allies after the near-criminal incompetence of the previous administration. She may mend very important relationships or lay down warnings to unfriendly nations. People who may need hurt in thoughts and the power to hold it out” (p 3).

On Iran:

Basic Whitehead, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Employees: “the Dunn administration pulled out of the nuclear accord with Iran. It was a horrible mistake. It closed Iran to all inspection, all scrutiny, of their weapons program.” … “It was carried out with out a plan, with out getting something in return. Nothing was put in place to ensure all of the positive factors, the hard-won stability, our intelligence and counterintelligence and counterterrorism capabilities can be maintained. Below the Dunn plan a vacuum was created. One the Taliban is blissful to fill.” (177).

On the American withdrawal from Afghanistan:  

“With the People gone, the Taliban, after being given protected haven for years in Pakistan, would once more take energy in Afghanistan. And with them would come their allies, in some methods their worldwide navy arm: Al-Qaeda.”
“It was an Al-Qaeda intent on hurting the West. Particularly intent on revenge in opposition to america for the killing of Osama bin Laden. They’d pledged it, and now, with the assistance of Bashir Shah and the Russian mafia, with the American withdrawal from Afghanistan and the reemergence of the Taliban, they’d be able to hold the risk by, and in a extra spectacular, extra damaging style than they’d dreamed doable.”
“A terrorist group may do what a authorities couldn’t. A authorities was topic to worldwide scrutiny and sanctions. A terrorist group was not.” (pp 366–367).

On Libya:

“Colonel Gaddafi was satisfied to surrender his nuclear weapons,” the Army Secretary defined.
“And the subsequent factor you realize, Libya’s invaded, and Gaddafi’s overthrown and killed. Nobody on this area has missed that lesson. Any nation with a nuclear weapon is protected. Nobody would dare assault. Any nation with out nuclear functionality is weak. It’s suicide to surrender their weapons.”
The steadiness of terror,” mentioned Ellen.
The steadiness of energy, Madame Secretary,” mentioned the [Pakistani] Prime Minister with a benign smile. (p 373).

On Russia, Russia is seen as “predatory and unpredictable” (p. 226) and “unstable, fickle.” (p. 229).

Russian President Maxim Ivanov is “a ruthless tyrant, schooled in oppression each refined and merciless.” “Whereas Eric Dunn had a pure intuition for different individuals’s weaknesses, what he didn’t have was calculation. He was far too lazy for that. However this man? This man calculated every little thing, with a coldness that might have given Siberia a chill.” (p 420).
“It’s by no means admitted, however nothing occurs with out the Russian President having a hand in it. Nobody may get these weapons, that fissile materials, with out his approval. He’s made billions.”
“The Russian President made the oligarchs. He gave them wealth and energy. He managed them. And so they managed the mob.
“The Russian mafia was the thread connecting all the weather. Iran. … Al-Qaeda. Pakistan.” (p 394).

The novel asks the elemental query in worldwide relations, what’s the state of terror? In response to Clinton and Penny,

“Given a selection between bedlam and a dictatorship, what do you assume the American individuals will select? Pushed by worry of one other assault, in a state of terror, they’ll do the terrorists’ work for them. They’ll destroy their very own freedoms. Settle for, even applaud, the suspension of rights. Internment camps. Torture. Expulsions.”
“The liberal agenda, ladies’s equality, homosexual marriage, immigrants, shall be blamed for the dying of the true America. However because of the daring motion of a patriotic few, the white Anglo-Saxon Christian, God-fearing America of their grandparents shall be restored. And in the event that they should slaughter a couple of thousand to realize it, nicely, it’s warfare, in spite of everything. The beacon that was America will die, by suicide. Frankly it was coughing up blood anyway.” (p 451).

Within the state of terror, torture is to a sure extent justifiable for the US. Because the novel places it succinctly:

“Ellen, who’d been appalled by the brutality of “enhanced interrogations,” now discovered inside herself a deep nicely of situational ethics. If torture would get the knowledge out of him [the suspect], may save 1000’s of lives, then deliver it on.”
“You may’t do it, are you able to. The top doesn’t justify the means . . .”
“The top is outlined by the means,” mentioned Ellen … “There are higher, sooner methods than torture. We all know that underneath torture individuals will say something to make it cease. Not essentially the reality.” (p 320-1).

Due to this fact, Clinton and Penny’s fictional Madam Secretary and the true life Secretary of State Hillary Clinton aren’t completely different figuratively. Clinton as an creator and former Secretary of State perceives or precisely constructs the state of worldwide affairs. Studying contrapuntally, the US shouldn’t be merely a state of liberty however a brand new empire in a state of terror.


Accessing visible tradition by fashionable movie [and fiction] permits us to think about the connections between IR principle and our on a regular basis lives. Utilizing fashionable movie [and fiction] on this manner helps us to get a way of the each connections between ‘the favored’ and ‘the political’. – Cynthia Weber[21]

By exposing and problematizing the very fact/ fiction binary opposition, Fictional Worldwide Relations gives us promising analysis in transdisclinary and transversal self-discipline of IR. Quite than constructing a separate self-discipline with completely different theoretical ‘campfires’, IR could make a constructive dialogue and debate with different disciplines, corresponding to movie research, cinematography, literature and literary research and so forth. Fictional Worldwide Relations is a (meta)theoretical bridge-builder by way of data co-production and studying.  

Ontologically, Fictional Worldwide Relations examines what’s the issues and non-things in international politics. It debunks the dichotomy of what’s ‘on the market’/ exterior and what’s ‘in right here’/ inside our thoughts. Issues and non-things are formed by an interstitial house of in-between. The ontology is relational ontology, that relations precede and prevail over the existence of issues.

Epistemologically, Fictional Worldwide Relations seems to be at how and the methods during which issues and non-things are discursively constituted in and thru intersubjective illustration and practices in addition to energy/data. Methodologically, it presents a contrapuntal studying and manner of seeing. It takes challenge with the traditional knowledge of positivist methodology. Fictional Worldwide Relations additionally adopts the discourse evaluation to critically interrogate the discursive framing and illustration of identification and distinction. Praxeologically, it contributes to how we place ourselves in a socio-political world. It opens the house of creativeness. The creativeness is on the coronary heart of what it means to be human. Fictional Worldwide Relations additionally foregrounds ourselves in empathic analysis ethos. Ethically and politically, empathy is a vicarious identification with different human beings and the world. Being empathetic is to place us into others’ footwear, to situate ourselves inside others’ locations and positions. We are able to really feel for and perceive different human beings.  

Therefore, Fictional Worldwide Relations is an ethic of critique and important creativeness in addition to an ethic of political duty. Towards this backdrop, we’re conscious of our epistemic limitation and incomplete figuring out. As social science researchers, we don’t have to fake to be goal and impartial, whose feelings and emotions are solely uncared for.

From the Fictional Worldwide Relations perspective, knowledge can not and can by no means converse for themselves. They don’t seem to be value-free. Information are fashioned and framed by energy/ data in numerous spatial and temporal contexts. They’re at all times views from someplace. Important and Fictional IR could make us reflexively conscious of those aforementioned standpoints. As a vital IR theorizer, I’m nearly at all times impressed and influenced by the fictional. In Tokyo Specific (1958), Seicho Matsumoto places it properly:

All of us fall prey to preconceptions that make us take sure issues with no consideration. This can be a harmful factor. Our slavish reliance on our personal widespread sense creates a blind spot.[22]

A blind spot of widespread sense must be traversed and transcended by counterpoints and contrapuntal studying. Important IR on the whole and Fictional IR specifically must be extrapolated as theoretical explorations and unfinished journeys, quite than locations. Following the perception from Kenneth Boulding, a famend peace analysis theorist, “we’re as we’re as a result of we obtained that manner”.[23] 

The way forward for IR lies within the intersectionality of reality, fiction and movie. The best way ahead shouldn’t be solely to construct International IR[24] but in addition to problematize International IR analysis and to see this intersectionality in vital and imaginative methods.[25] In different phrases, we have to stretch ourselves not solely past Western centrism however extra importantly past the epistemic fallacy and particularly reality/fiction dichotomy. That is largely as a result of IR is firstly about methods of revisioning, regarding and reinventing world politics. It’s a seek for “understanding different individuals’s emotions, making relationships between oneself and the world”.[26] Fictional Worldwide Relations seeks to develop an empathic and vicarious worldview by imagining being in different’s locations and positions. Being imaginative and being empathic permits the open-ended view of human potentials and prospects.  


[1] Bertrand Russell, Reality and Fiction (London: Routledge, 1961), 120. For Russell, “there are two sorts of details to be borne in thoughts. There are what may be referred to as exhausting details, involved with armaments, dangers of unintended warfare, Western obligations to West Berlin, Russian tyranny in Hungary, and so forth. There are additionally what, as compared, could also be referred to as gentle details.

These include the hopes and fears which have impressed actions which have elevated hostility. There’s a continuous inter-action between these two units of details, and to debate which set ought to come first might look like the outdated downside of the hen and the egg. I believe, nevertheless, {that a} smaller effort is required to alter the gentle details than to alter the exhausting ones, and that the best option to change the exhausting details is to deal with the gentle details first” (208).

[2] Gary King, Robert Keohane, and Sidney Verba, Designing Social Inquiry (Princeton: Princeton College Press, 1994).

[3] See Roland Bleiker, ed., Visible International Politics (London: Routledge, 2018); Roland Bleiker, “The Aesthetic Flip in Worldwide Political Concept”, Millennium: Journal of Worldwide Research, Vol. 30: No. 3 (2001), 509-533; Roland Bleiker, Aesthetics and World Politics (Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009); William A. Callahan, “The Visible Flip in IR: Documentary Filmmaking as a Important Technique”, Millennium: Journal of Worldwide Research, Vol. 43: No. 3 (2015), 891–910; William A. Callahan, Smart Politics: Visualizing Worldwide Relations (Oxford: Oxford College Press, 2020).

[4] Roland Bleiker, “Mapping Visible International Politics”, in Vitual International Politics (London: Routledge, 2018), 1.

[5] See Naeem Inayatullah, eds., Autobiographical Worldwide Relations: I, IR (London: Routledge, 2011); Naeem Inayatullah and Elizabeth Dauphinee, eds., Narrative International Politics: Concept, Historical past and the Private in Worldwide Relations (London: Routledge, 2016); Elizabeth Dauphinee, The Politics of Exile (London: Routledge, 2013).

[6] Ken Sales space, “Safety and Self: Reflections of a Fallen Realist”, in Important Safety Research: Ideas and Circumstances, eds. Keith Krause and Michael C. Williams (London: UCL Press, 1997), 83-119.

[7] See Gearóid ó Tuathail, Important Geopolitics (London: Routledge, 1997); Klaus Dodds, International Geopolitics: A Important Introduction (London: Routledge, 2005); Klaus Dodds, Merje Kuus, and Joanne Sharp, eds., The Ashgate Analysis Companion to Important Geopolitics (London: Routledge, 2013).

[8] See Cynthia Weber, “The highs and lows of instructing IR principle: Utilizing fashionable movie for theoretical critique”, Worldwide Research Views, Vol. 2 (2001), 281-287; Cynthia Weber, Worldwide Relations Concept: A Important Introduction, 5th Version (London: Routledge 2021); Michael J. Shapiro, Cinematic Geopolitics (London: Routledge, 2009); Klaus Dodds, “ ‘Have You Seen Any Good Movie These days?’ Geopolitics, Worldwide Relations and Movie”, Geography Compass, Vol. 2: No. 2 (2008): 476-494; William A. Callahan, “The Visible Flip in IR: Documentary Filmmaking as a Important Technique”, Millennium: Journal of Worldwide Research, Vol. 43: No. 3 (2015), 891–910.

[9] Daniel W. Drezner, Theories of Worldwide Politics and Zombies, Revived Version (Princeton: Princeton College Press, 2015).

[10] Sungju Park-Kang, “Fictional IR and Creativeness: Advancing Narrative Strategy”, Evaluate of Worldwide Research, Vol. 41: No. 2 (2015), 361-381; Sungju Park-Kang, Fictional Worldwide Relations: Gender, Ache and fact (London: Routledge, 2014).

[11] See Chengxin Pan, “Towards a brand new relational ontology in international politics: China’s rise as holographic transition”, Worldwide Relations of the Asia-Pacific, Vol. 18: No. 3 (2018), 339-367; Yaqing Qin, A Relational Concept of World Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge College Press, 2018); Emilian Kavalski, The Quanxi of Relational Worldwide Concept (London: Routledge, 2018); Milja Kurki, “Relational revolution and relationality in IR: New conversations”, Evaluate of Worldwide Research (2021), 1-16.

[12] On the binary relationship between reality and fiction, see Richard Ned Lebow, Forbidden Fruit: Counterfactuals and Worldwide Relations (Princeton: Princeton College Press 2010), 276-283.

[13] Sungju Park-Kang, “Fictional IR and Creativeness: Advancing Narrative Strategy”, Evaluate of Worldwide Research, Vol. 41: No. 2 (2015), 362.

[14] Jennifer Milliken, “The Examine of Discourse in Worldwide Relations: A Critique of Analysis and Strategies”, European Journal of Worldwide Relations, Vol. 5: No. 2 (1999), 233, 236.

[15] See Lene Hansen, Safety as Follow: Discourse Evaluation and the Bosnian Battle (London and New York: Routledge, 2006); Charlotte Epstein, “Who Speaks? Discourse, the Topic and the Examine of Identification in Worldwide Politics”, European Journal of Worldwide Relations, Vol. 17: No. 2 (2011), 327-50; Maja Zehfuss, “Constructivism and Identification: A Harmful Liaison”, European Journal of Worldwide Relations, Vol. 7: No. 3 (2001), 315-8.

[16] See Geeta Chowdhry, “Edward Stated and Contrapuntal Studying: Implications for Important Interventions in Worldwide Relations”, Millennium: Journal of Worldwide Research, Vol.36: No.1 (2007), 101-116; Pinar Bilgin, “ ‘Contrapuntal Studying’ as a Technique, Ethos, and a Metaphor for International IR”, Worldwide Research Evaluate, Vol. 18 (2016), 134-146.

[17] Edward Stated, Tradition and Imperialism (London: Penguin, 1993), 32.

[18] Stated, Tradition and Imperialism, 28.

[19] Timothy Brenana, Locations of Thoughts: A Lifetime of Edward Stated (London: Bloomsbury, 2021), 206.

[20] Hillary Clinton and Louise Penny, State of Terror (London: Penguin Books, 2021).

[21] Cynthia Weber, Worldwide Relations Concept: A Important Introduction, 5th Version (London: Routledge 2021), 9.

[22] Seicho Matsumoto, Tokyo Specific, trans. Jesse Kirkwood (London: Penguin Books, 2022 [1958]), 138.  

[23] Quoted in Sales space, “Safety and Self: Reflections of a Fallen Realist”, 101.

[24] Amitav Acharya, “Advancing International IR: Challenges, Contentions, and Contributions”, Worldwide Research Evaluate, Vol. 18: No. 1 (2016), 4-15

[25] See Kullada Kesboonchoo Mead and Jittipat Poonkham, “The Finish of Thai Worldwide Relations? A plea for the empirical foundations of vital principle”, in Worldwide Relations as a Self-discipline in Thailand (London: Routledge, 2018), 240-258.

[26] Park-Kang, “Fictional IR and Creativeness: Advancing Narrative Strategy”, 381.

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