Queen Elizabeth II is the UK’s longest-reigning royal and among the many world’s longest-ruling monarchs in historical past.
February 6 marks the queen’s platinum jubilee as she ascended to the throne 70 years in the past in 1952, following the demise of her father King George VI.
In June 1953, Elizabeth was formally topped because the queen of the UK and queen regnant of seven Commonwealth nations on the time.
Succession to the British throne
Queen Elizabeth II is the third monarch of the Home of Windsor, the official title adopted by the royal household in 1917.
She was 25 years outdated when she acceded to the throne, the eldest of King George VI’s youngsters and subsequent in line to rule. Succession to the British throne determines who will grow to be the subsequent king or queen. It’s determined based mostly upon descent, faith and primogeniture.
Protestant descendants of Princess Sophia, the granddaughter of James I, are eligible to the throne. The longer term monarch should even be “in communion” with the Church of England.
Beforehand, youthful male heirs acceded to the throne displacing elder daughters. Nevertheless, in 2013, a regulation was passed that allowed feminine heirs equal rights within the line of succession.
The present line of succession for the British crown is:
Charles, the prince of Wales (73)
Prince William, the duke of Cambridge (39)
Prince George (8)
Princess Charlotte (6)
Prince Louis (3)
On September 9, 2015, Queen Elizabeth grew to become the UK’s longest-ruling monarch overtaking her great-great grandmother Queen Victoria, who reigned for greater than 63 years.
Throughout Queen Elizabeth’s 70-year reign, the UK has been led by 14 totally different prime ministers.
The queen performs an vital function in approving elected prime ministers and meets them commonly. Nevertheless, the monarch should stay impartial in issues of politics and by conference doesn’t vote in elections.
When the queen acceded to the throne, Winston Churchill was the primary prime minister she had dealings with. When Churchill died in 1965, the queen broke royal protocol when she arrived at his funeral earlier than his household.
Within the span of the queen’s rule, many vital royal, nationwide and world occasions have occurred, from the institution of the European Union (EU) to the Iraq Battle and the UK’s exit from the EU.
In 2011, the queen made the primary state go to by a monarch to Eire, marking a big second in British and Irish historical past given the nations’ fraught historic relationship.
In 2021, Prince Philip, the queen’s husband of 73 years, handed away. The couple had been married in 1947 and the queen described him as her “energy and keep”.
The queen is presently the pinnacle of state to fifteen nations, all a part of the Commonwealth – a 54-member group of former British colonies – with a complete inhabitants of two.5 billion folks.
Throughout the Sixties, greater than 20 former British colonies grew to become impartial. Throughout this era, immigration from the Commonwealth states to the UK elevated.
Nevertheless, it was additionally a interval of in depth emigration of Britons overseas. As such, the 1962 Commonwealth Immigrants Act was established to curtail immigration from Commonwealth states.
Throughout the years, 17 nations have eliminated the queen as their head of state and have become republics. In November 2021, the Caribbean island nation of Barbados grew to become the latest nation to take action.
How a lot does the royal household value?
The queen’s revenue comes from the Sovereign Grant, the privy purse and her private investments. The federal government pays the queen a lump sum referred to as the Sovereign Grant which covers the queen’s official duties.
Final yr, the royal household acquired 87.5 million pounds ($118.6m) from the UK authorities, 34.4 million kilos ($46.6m) of which was spent on the refurbishment of Buckingham Palace.
The Sovereign Grant is a share of the Crown Property, that are earnings made out of the estates belonging to the monarchy.
Final yr, the Crown Property made 269.3 million kilos ($365.1m) in income.
Beforehand, 15 p.c of the Crown Property was put aside for the Sovereign Grant, however this has elevated to 25 percent since 2017-18, partly put all the way down to prices associated to the renovation of royal properties.
The income of the Crown Property dropped greater than 20 percent during 2020-2021 in contrast with the earlier yr because of the coronavirus pandemic and lack of tourism.
The platinum jubilee will probably be celebrated in June within the UK, as folks mark the day with avenue events and a protracted weekend.